DNA

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There are three (3) different types of DNA: Autosomal DNA or At DNA, Y Chromosome or Y DNA, and mitocondrial DNA or Mt DNA

  • Autosomal DNA or At DNA:
    • This is the type of DNA you will primarily do your searching with.
    • At DNA is made up of 22 of your chromosomes and sometimes the X chromosome is included by the DNA company.
    • At DNA is inherit from both of your parents.
    • You get some At DNA from all your close ancestors - out to at least great great great grandparents - on all branches of your tree. You may or may not get At DNA from more distant ancestors.
    • Parents pass down different At DNA to each child which is why siblings (except identical twins etc) don’t have identical At DNA. The amount of At DNA you get from each of your ancestor varies.
    • At DNA tests are provided at ancestryDNA, My HeritageDNA, Family Tree DNA, and 23andMe as well as other companies.
    • PLEASE LEARN MORE HERE:  Search Step 5: Learn About DNA
  • Y DNA:
    • Y DNA or a Y DNA haplogroup might help your search. Beginning searchers should not start with a Y DNA test
    • Y DNA is one of the sex or gender chromosomes. It is only found in males and is what makes them male.
    • Y DNA is passed from father to son to son. It is not inherited from any other close or distant ancestors on any other branch of your tree.
    • If you are a male searcher or a male descendant of a male adoptee, donor conceived, or person with an NPE, a Y-DNA test at Family Tree DNA might be helpful in determining a birth father's surname or who he is. It can also be used to separate paternal from maternal At DNA matches.
    • Family Tree DNA (FTDNA) provides a comprehensive Y DNA test with matches. 23andMe and Living DNA provide Y DNA haplogroups but no Y DNA matches.
  • Mitochondrial DNA, or mt DNA:
    • With rare exception, this type of DNA is not helpful in a search. Searchers should consult the DNAAdoption Team prior to purchasing this test.
    • Mt DNA is primarily passed down from a mother to all of her children but recent research has shown that fathers also can pass down Mt DNA to their children.
    • Mt DNA remains largely unchanged through the generations.
    • FTDNA provides a comprehensive Mt DNA test with matches. 23andMe and Living DNA provide Mt DNA haplogroups but no Mt DNA matches.
  • What DNA Test Should I Take?  Find Answers Here
  • Where Should I Test: Find Answers Here
  • I Have Concerns
    • Your concerns are unique to you and are very valid. Please take the time to become informed and address all your concerns and questions before testing. The DNAAdoption Team is available to help answer your questions and point you to trusted resources. Join our free group to get help
    • Kelly Wheaton has an excellent article addressing many concerns and links to other reliable resources. DNA Testing Concerns

It does not happen like you think it will

Add recommendations and considerations

Trees

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What is a research tree?

How do I build a research at ancestry?

How do I build a research tree at My Heritage?

Single tree or separate trees?

Do I make my tree Public, Private, or Private and Unsearchable?

There are several tools that will automatically build a tree.   They should be used with much caution.

Ancestry ancestor suggestions

My Heritage ancestor suggestions

Genetic Affairs

DNA Painter

What are some of the best practices and considerations?

These companies allow you to build trees or refer to trees for your search / research. Click on the Tabs to learn more.

Individual Trees.  Can use for research and tree building. Trees are integrated with DNA.

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Individual Trees.  Can use for research and tree building. Trees are integrated with DNA.

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Single World Tree.  Can use for research. Tree is not integrated with DNA

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Single World Tree.  Can use for research. Tree is connected with DNA kits on GEDmatch.

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Single World Tree.  Can use for research. Tree is interfaced with kits at Family Tree DNA.

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Individual Trees.  Can use for research and tree building. Not integrated with a DNA company. Plan in place to interface with Living DNA.

Learn how to (insert things and links)

Some DNA companies have trees available. Having integrated DNA and trees is a key feature to utilize. Click on the Tabs to learn more.
AncestryDNA is integrated with ancestry trees. It is the most intuitive of the companies to use. AncestryDNA Thrulines is a key tool that is enabled by the integration.

Several Third (3rd) Party Tools can also help you make using the trees and DNA together even more easier.

Learn how to link a  ancestryDNA kit to an ancestry tree

My Heritage DNA is integrated with My Heritage trees. My Heritage DNA Theories of Relativity is a key tool that is enabled by the integration. It is straight forward to use.

Several Third (3rd) Party Tools can also help you make using the trees and DNA together even more easier.

Learn how to link a My Heritage DNA kit to a My Heritage tree

Family Tree DNA has trees available on some kits. The DNA kit and trees are not integrated. Some kits are integrated with the Geni World.

Several Third (3rd) Party Tools can help you make using the trees and DNA together easier.

Learn how to link a FTDNA kit to the Geni  One-World Tree

GEDmatch kits can be integrated with uploaded trees. It is not intuitive to use. The key tools require a Tier 1 subscription.

Several Third (3rd) Party Tools can also help you make using the trees and DNA together easier.

Learn how to link a kit at GEDmatch to a GEDCOM tree file.

Tools

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DNA2Tree
DNAGEDCOM's GWORKS
AncestryDNA ThrulinesMy Heritage DNA Theory of Relativity

Genetic Affairs
DNA2Tree

Tools offered by the DNA companies that will be useful for your search / research. Click on the Tabs to learn more.

Shared Matches
Thrulines

Shared Matches
How Matches Are Related
Theory of Family Relativity
Triangulated Segments

In-Common-With (ICW) Matches    also called Shared Matches
A-Matrix

Relatives in Common  aka Shared Matches
How Matches are Related
Your Family Tree (discontinued Beta)

People Who Match Both or 1 of Two Kits aka Shared Matches
Are My Parents Related
Triangulation
Multiple Kit Analysis (MKA)

Summary of various 3rd party tools that can be useful for your search / research. Click on Tabs to learn more.

DNAGEDCOM Client
ADSA
GWORKS
Genetic Family

Shared CM Tool
WATO
Cluster Auto Painter
Cluster Formatter
Individual Match Filter

AutoCluster
Auto Tree
Auto Scan

Traditional Search
Books, Blogs, Websites, & More

Birthright: The Guide to Search and Reunion for Adoptees - Jean A.S.Strauss

Lost & Found – Betty Jean Lifton

Primal Wound: Understanding the Adopted Child – Nancy Verrier

The Girls Who Went Away – Ann Flessler

Being Adopted: The Lifelong Search for Self – Brodzinsky, Schechter, Henig

Paper and Spit: How DNA and Genealogy revealed my First Parents Identify – Don Anderson

Finding Family: My Search for Roots and the Secrets in My DNA – Richard Hill

 

ISOGG

 

CUB
AAC

Genealogy